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bagel   Pronunciation:   BAY-gull   Notes:   A Jewish specialty, these ring-shaped rolls have a dense, chewy texture.  They're usually served for breakfast after being sliced open, toasted, and smeared with cream cheese.  The dough is sometimes studded with raisins, blueberries, onions, seeds, or herbs.  Substitutes:  English muffin (not as chewy) OR bialy

baguet   See French bread. 

baguette  See French bread

bâtarde  See French bread

baton  See French bread. 

bialy   Pronunciaton:   bee-AH-lee   Notes:   These chewy Jewish rolls have indentations on top which are filled with onions.   Look for them in bagel shops.   Substitutes:  bagel

bolillo = pan blanco   Pronunciation:  bow-LEE-yoh   Notes:  These are crusty Mexican sandwich rolls.  Substitutes:   French bread OR tortilla

breadsticks = grissini = Italian breadsticks   Notes:   Italians serve these crunchy breadsticks before Italian meals, to keep their guests occupied without filling them up too much.  You can buy them plain, or flavored with sesame seeds, garlic, onion, or herbs.  Substitutes:  Italian bread OR French bread

brioche   Pronunciation:  bree-OSHE  Notes:   This rich, slightly sweet yeast bread is made with eggs and butter, and sometimes with fruit or nuts.    Substitutes:  challah (similar, but not as rich) OR croissant OR Kugelhopf

challah = hallah = challa   Pronunciation:   HAH-lah  Notes:   This Jewish yeast bread is made with eggs and butter.  It's wonderfully soft and rich, and usually comes as a braided loaf.  Substitutes:  brioche (similar, but richer) OR Portuguese sweet bread OR croissant

ciabatta   Pronunciation:  chuh-BAH-tah  Notes:   Ciabatta ("slipper" in Italian) is a rustic bread with a heavy crust and a dense crumb.  Substitutes:  Italian bread OR French bread

corn rye bread = corn-rye bread  Notes:  A staple of Jewish delicatessens, this rye bread is coated with cornmeal.  It's often paired with corned beef.  Substitutes:  rye bread

croissant   Pronunciation:  krwuh-SAHN Notes:   These French crescent-shaped rolls are made with puff pastry, so they're wonderfully rich and tender.  They're great for dunking into coffee, or for making sandwiches.  Substitutes:   brioche OR challah

crumpet   Notes:   These are moist yeast muffins that the British like to slather with butter or clotted cream and serve at teatime. You can buy them ready-made in larger supermarkets, or make them yourself with the help of a crumpet ring and griddle.  Toast them before eating.   Substitutes:  English muffin (very similar)

dreikornbrot  Notes:  This German bread is made with rye flour.

English muffin   Notes:   When split and toasted, these muffins have an uncanny ability to trap and hold butter and jam.  They're often served at breakfast as an alternative to toast.  Substitutes:  toast OR crumpet OR bagel OR croissant

ficelle  See French bread.

French bread  Notes:  This is the traditional French bread that has a hard, dark brown crust and many large air pockets.  The baguette = baguet  (bah-GET) is the standard tube-shaped French bread, about two feet long.  The bâtarde = batarde  (buh-TARD) is a bit larger than a baguette, while the baton (bah-TOH), is a bit smaller, and the ficelle (fee-SELL) is much narrower.   Substitutes:   Italian bread  (Usually shorter and rounder than French bread.)

Greek bread  

Italian bread    Notes:   Like French bread, Italian bread has a dark, hard crust and a slightly chewy interior.  Substitutes:   French bread  (French bread is generally longer and narrower than Italian bread, but otherwise very similar.)

kommisbrot   Notes:  This German rye bread has a fine texture and is often thinly sliced.

kugelhopf = kouglof    Pronunciation:   KOO-guhl-hopf   Notes:  This German specialty is a sweetened yeast bread with currants and almonds baked inside.  It's usually shaped in a ring and served at breakfast.  Substitutes:  panettone OR kulich OR brioche

kulich = Russian Easter bread   Pronunciation:  KOO-litch   Notes:   Russians serve this rich, sweetened yeast bread at Easter. It typically has raisins in it and icing on top.   Substitutes:  panettone OR brioche OR Kugelhopf


limpa bread = Swedish limpa bread = sweet rye bread = Swedish rye bread   Pronunciation:    LIM-pah  Notes:  This delicious and fragrant rye bread is usually flavored with molasses, anise seed, and orange peel.  Despite its exquisite flavor, it's hard to find in the United States.   Substitutes:  pumpernickel bread

manaeesh  See zatar bread.


Portuguese sweet bread = pao duce = Hawaiian bread  Notes:  This sweet and tender bread is great for making French toast or for nibbling.  Substitutes:  challah OR brioche

Pugliese bread = pan Pugliese  Pronunciation:  pool-yee-AY-zee   Notes:   This simple, crusty bread hails from Puglia, Italy, and is great for making sandwiches or dipping into olive oil.  Some producers flavor it with olives or cheese.  Substitutes:  Italian bread

pumpernickel bread    Notes:    This heavy and slightly sour bread is made with molasses and a blend of rye and wheat flours.  It's often cut into thin slices and used for appetizers.  Substitutes:  sourdough rye OR Russian black bread

raisin bread  Notes:  This bread is studded with raisins and often flavored with cinnamon.  It's usually served as toast for breakfast.   

Russian Easter bread  See kulich.


rye bread    Notes:   This is a favorite of Northern Europeans, who use it to make hearty sandwiches.  Most of it is made with both rye and wheat flours.  There are dozens of varieties, ranging from light tan to almost black.   Substitutes:  pumpernickel bread OR limpa bread

sourdough bread  Notes:  A San Francisco specialty, this is French bread made with a special starter of yeast and bacteria that imparts a pleasant, sour taste to the bread.  It's especially good with seafood.  Substitutes:  French bread

starter breads = pain au levain = pane lievito naturale    Notes:    These are breads that are made with a starter instead of fresh yeast.  A starter is a mixture of flour, water, and baker's yeast that been set out so that it can be colonized by airborne yeast and friendly bacteria.  Starters lend a special character to the bread--sourdough bread, for example, needs to be made with a starter to acquire a sour flavor.  

Swedish limpa bread  See limpa bread.

zatar bread = manaeesh

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