READING (Grave Seven)
1.0. Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Grave Seven)
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
Vocabulary and Concept Development (Grave Seven)
1.1 Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand
1.3 Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast.
2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) (Grave Seven)
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade seven, students make substantial progress toward this goal.
Structural Features of Informational Materials (Grave Seven)
2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals, signs).
2.2 Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.
2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern.
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text (Grave Seven)
2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective in text.
2.5 Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical directions.
Expository Critique (Grave Seven)
2.6 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author's evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping.
3.0 Literary Response and Analysis (Grave Seven)
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
Structural Features of Literature (Grave Seven)
3.1 Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose
(e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay).
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text (Grave Seven)
3.2 Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s).
3.3 Analyze characterization as delineated through a character's thoughts, words, speech patterns, and actions; the narrator's description; and the thoughts, words, and actions
of other characters.
3.4 Identify and analyze recurring themes across works (e.g., the value of bravery, loyalty, and friendship; the effects of loneliness).
3.5 Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work.
Literary Criticism (Grave Seven)
3.6 Analyze a range of responses to a literary work and determine the extent to which the literary elements in the work shaped those responses.
WRITING (Grave Seven)
1.0. Writing Strategies (Grave Seven)
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students'
awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
Organization and Focus (Grave Seven)
1.1 Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas.
1.2 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples.
1.3 Use strategies of notetaking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition drafts.
Research and Technology (Grave Seven)
1.4 Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research.
1.5 Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations.
1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.
Evaluation and Revision (Grave Seven)
1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grave Seven)
Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
Using the writing strategies of grade seven outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives:
a. Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement) and point of view.
b. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
c. Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions).
2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
b. Organize interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the literary work.
c. Justify interpretations through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.
2.3 Write research reports:
a. Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic.
b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g., use of a
card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalog, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries).
d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and a bibliography.
2.4 Write persuasive compositions:
a. State a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal.
b. Describe the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated
c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5 Write summaries of reading materials:
a. Include the main ideas and most significant details.
b. Use the student's own words, except for quotations.
c. Reflect underlying meaning, not just the superficial details.
WRITTEN AND ORAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS (Grave Seven)
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions (Grave Seven)
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to the grade level.
Sentence Structure (Grave Seven)
1.1 Place modifiers properly and use the active voice.
Grammar (Grave Seven)
1.2 Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns and antecedents.
1.3 Identify all parts of speech and types and structure of sentences.
1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference).
Punctuation (Grave Seven)
1.5 Identify hyphens, dashes, brackets, and semicolons and use them correctly.
Capitalization (Grave Seven)
1.6 Use correct capitalization.
Spelling (Grave Seven)
1.7 Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (Grave Seven)
1.0. Listening and Speaking Strategies (Grave Seven)
Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral
Comprehension (Grave Seven)
1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker's claims and conclusions.
1.2 Determine the speaker's attitude toward the subject.
1.3 Respond to persuasive messages with questions, challenges, or affirmations.
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication (Grave Seven)
1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background and interests of the audience.
1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively in relation to the audience.
1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations.
Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications (Grave Seven)
1.7 Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a speech's content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener.
1.8 Analyze the effect on the viewer of images, text, and sound in electronic journalism; identify the techniques used to achieve the effects in each instance studied.
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grave Seven)
Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the speaking strategies of grade seven outlined in Listening and Speaking
Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:
a. Establish a context, standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement), and point of view.
b. Describe complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
c. Use a range of appropriate strategies, including dialogue, suspense, and naming of specific narrative action (e.g., movement, gestures, expressions).
2.2 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books:
a. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
b. Use the student's own words, except for material quoted from sources.
c. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details.
2.3 Deliver research presentations:
a. Pose relevant and concise questions about the topic.
b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
c. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries).
d. Cite reference sources appropriately.
2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:
a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal.
b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence.